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HT9H Nicaragua flag Nicaragua

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Email: Login required to view QSL: TI4SU -BOX 234 . CIUDAD QUESADA 4400 , COSTA RICA

first picture - guachiman in "la subasta" district of managua. (watchman).

 

you can see them all over in managua - easy on the gasoline -



taxi moto in managua - a little bit cheaper than ordinary taxi.

buss loaded full with farmers for nearby villages , coutry side nicaragua

 

some routes with bad roads use trucks for transportation of the people living further down the road

nnfor more fotos see h7a -yn7su- h77rex -h74leon yn4su-yn9su


 

filatelic section of c p o in managua . stamps for the return envelope of some of the qsl requests - most are mailed from tango india thou

post office clerks ciudad quesada, costa rica. prepared with huge smile.

normal without smile.


Rafaela Herrera igniting cannon

Abrogation of the Chamorro-Bryan Treaty




shoe maker assistent (cobbler).

saddle & shoe maker

blind man giving entertainment ? for travelling passengers . begging for some pennies.

 

 


conmemorative call , 250 aniversary , battle for the rio san juan .

 

QSL via - T i 4 S U . box 234 - ciudad quesada 4400

COSTA RICA.

PLEASE

INCLUDE S2 GS OR IRC

 

sFOR RETURN POSTAGE

fermin hauling himself up

with the help of rosa - fermin safely up .

 

water at 12 m .

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mercado huembes in managua - small tortilla enterprise .everyone eats tortilla

10 tortillas cost about 45 cents(us)

free counters

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here´s the story

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Rafaela de Herrera y Torreynosa (1742 – 1805) was the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Don José de Herrera y Sotomayor (died 1762). She is considered a national heroine of Nicaragua, due to her actions in the defense of the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception during the Battle for the Río San Juan de Nicaragua in 1762.

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Rafaela de Herrera y Torreynosa
Born Rafaela de Herrera y Torreynosa
August 6, 1742
Cartagena de Indias, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Spanish Empire
Died 1805 (aged61–62)
Granada, Captaincy General of Guatemala, Spanish Empire
Nationality Spanish
Knownfor Battle for the Río San Juan de Nicaragua (1762)
Spouse Pablo Mora
Children five, names unknown

Rafaela de Herrera y Torreynosa (1742 – 1805) was the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Don José de Herrera y Sotomayor (died 1762). She is considered a national heroine of Nicaragua, due to her actions in the defense of the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception during the Battle for the Río San Juan de Nicaragua in 1762.

Rafaela Herrera was born on August 6, 1742 in Cartagena de Indias, in the Viceroyalty of New Granada of the Spanish Empire. She was the illegitimate[1] and only child of Don José de Herrera y Sotomayor and Felipa Torreynosa.[2] Herrera's birth mother was Felipa Torreynosa, who was reported to be a criolla or possibly a mulatto woman.[2] She was raised in Cartagena by another woman—Doña Maria Felipe de Uriarte—who was widely considered to be her de facto mother.[2]

Herrera's father was a captain of artillery who had been engaged in heavy combat against British forces under the command of Vice Admiral Edward Vernon during the Battle of Cartagena de Indias in 1741. At the time of her birth the following year, he was Commander of the Castillo de San Sebastián del Pastelillo, a fortress on the outskirts of Cartagena de Indias.[3] She was also the granddaughter of Brigadier Don Juan de Herrera y Sotomayor (died 1732), a prominent military engineer of Cartagena de Indias and founder of the Academia Militar de Matemáticas de América (Military Academy of Mathematics of America).[3] Her great-grandfather was Captain General Don José Antonio de Herrera y Sotomayor, who had been Governor of Río de la Plata from 1682-1691.[3]

In raising his daughter, Lieutenant Colonel Herrera had tried to educate her not only in military exercises such as the handling of the cannon, but also in the principles of honor, faith and patriotism.[3] Rafaela and her father left Cartagena in 1753, when the latter was assigned as Commander of the garrison at the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception on the San Juan River in the Province of Nicaragua, in relief of Lieutenant Colonel Don Juan Antonio Alonso de Arce.[3]

The Battle for the Río San Juan de Nicaragua

Flag used in the Spanish coastal fortifications from 1701 to 1785

Because it represented a potential route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as well as the possibility of expanding their colonization of Central America beyond the Mosquito Coast, Nicaragua was a major target of attacks by the British during the 18th century. In 1762, William Lyttelton, the British governor and commander-in-chief of Jamaica, proposed a naval expedition to Nicaragua. The goal was to sail up the San Juan River to Lake Nicaragua and capture the town of Granada, which would effectively cut Spanish America in half as well as provide potential access to the Pacific Ocean.[4] The first and greatest obstacle to success was to capture the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception.[5]

The conflict began in June 1762, during the administration of interim Governor of Nicaragua Melchor Vidal de Lorca y Villena. Instigated and aided by the British expeditionary force, a group of Miskito Sambu filibusters attacked cocoa plantations in the Valley of Matina. The following month they raided many undefended settlements in Nicaragua, including Jinotega, Acoyapa, Lovigüisca, San Pedro de Lóvago, the mission of Apompuá near Juigalpa and Muy Muy, burning and looting the villages as well as capturing some Spanish prisoners.[5] Many of the people they captured were sold as slaves to British merchants and transported to Jamaica.[6]

The combined British and Miskito Sambu expeditionary force headed towards the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception on the San Juan River in July. The attacking force consisted of two thousand men and more than fifty boats,[5][7] while the soldiers at the fortress numbered only around a hundred. To make matters worse, the invaders threatened the region at a time when the commander of the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception, José Herrera, was mortally ill. As he lay on his deathbed, Rafaela made a solemn oath to her father that she would defend the fortress at the cost of her life if necessary.[3] The elder Herrera died some time between July 15[8] and July 17,[3] and Lieutenant Don Juan de Aguilar y Santa Cruz assumed temporary command of the garrison.[3]

A few days later, on July 26, 1762, a combined British and Miskito Sambu expeditionary force laid siege to the fortress during what would later be called the Battle for the Río San Juan de Nicaragua. At 4 o’clock that morning, the lookout on duty heard cannon fire from the east, in the direction of an observation post which was located at the junction of the Bartola and San Juan rivers. Shortly thereafter, the invaders captured the observation post and its defenders. The British commander learned from the Spanish prisoners that the fortress was in disarray due to the recent death of its commander. A few hours later, with his fleet anchored in the river, the British commander sent an envoy to demand the unconditional surrender of the fortress in exchange for the avoidance of further hostilities.[7] The second in command of the garrison, a sergeant, was about to grant the request when the 19-year-old Herrera intervened. Seeing what she perceived as the cowardly attitude of the defenders, Herrera chided: "Have you forgotten the duties imposed by military honor? Are you going to allow the enemy to steal this fortress, which is the safeguard of the Province of Nicaragua and of your families?" Animated by the spirit of her late father and ancestors and knowing the risk to her honor and virginity with the barbarity of the Miskito Sambu, she strongly opposed the surrender of the fort and insisting that each soldier take his place fighting. She ordered the gates of the fortress to be locked, took the keys and placed sentries.[3]

In response to the rejection of their demands, the British formed a skirmish line, believing that this would be sufficient to achieve the desired effect. Herrera, trained in the handling of weapons, fired one of the cannons and managed to kill the British commander with the third volley of cannon fire.[5][7][9] Enraged by the death of their boss, the British hoisted their battle ensign and began a vigorous attack upon the fortress which continued throughout the night. The garrison, energized by Herrera’s heroism, mounted a fierce resistance which inflicted great losses to the British men and boats.[3] At nightfall, Herrera ordered the troops to throw some sheets soaked with alcohol into the river on floating branches and set on fire. The current dragged the burning material towards the enemy craft. This unexpected action forced the invading British troops to suspend their attack for the rest of the night and retreat to defensive positions. The next day the British tried to besiege the fortress, with little progress and many casualties on their side.[7]

Inspired by Herrera's acts of heroism, Lieutenant Juan de Aguilar, the pro tempore garrison commander, led the defenders to victory in a battle that lasted six days.[2][3][10] Herrera handled the cannons of the fortress and the Spanish managed not only to defend the strategic position but also to defeat a much larger and better trained military force.[3] The British finally lifted their siege and retreated on August 3, 1762.[10] They withdrew to the mouth of San Juan River, where their presence impeded the flow of shipping into the Caribbean Sea for some time. Fortunately for the defenders of the fortress, Spain and Britain began peace negotiations (in Fontainebleau on November 3, 1762), which culminated in the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763.[5] Cuba and Manila, which had been captured by the British, were returned to Spain and the Spanish ceded Florida to the British.

Later life

Herrera later married Don Pablo Mora, a citizen of Granada. The couple bore five children, of whom two were paralyzed. Her husband died after the birth of their fifth child, and the family lived in poverty in barrio Corinto (a poor neighborhood in Granada) until 1781. On November 11, 1781, King Charles III of Spain issued a royal decree granting Herrera a pension for life as a reward for her heroic actions during the Battle for the Río San Juan

de Nicaragua;[7] she received some land and a pension of 600 pesos in payment for her merit

Street vendors are common sight in all the country . Selling almost anything. Most common are - food . Pictures show sale of ENCHILADAS , Güirilas , Rosquillas - and also all kinds of fresh fruit.

here´s one of many tailors at the mercado huembes in managua,

good basic food at managua "mercado huembes" resturant . filling your belly for approx two and a half us$.(picture b4)

 

 
 

 

 
 

INMACULADA CONCEPCIÓN (1762)

   

Por el año de 1751, los zambos que habitaban en las costas de Nicaragua, realizaban alentados por los ingleses, frecuentes incursiones al interior del país. Sus robos, saqueos e incendios, producían indignación en la Colonia, pues se atribuían estos desmanes a descuido de las autoridades españolas.

En 1762 España estaba en guerra con la nación inglesa, como inmediata consecuencia del "Pacto de Familia" entre Carlos III y Luisa XV. El reflejo de las guerra no se hizo esperar en las colonias.

Además de estas incursiones, aumentaban la zozobra del Gobernador Español de la provincia de Nicaragua, las invasiones que los propios ingleses intentaban, cada vez con mayor atrevimiento, por el Río San Juan, desaguadero del Gran Lago y llave de la Provincia de Nicaragua.

Con el fin de impedir el paso por el citado río, se construyó El Castillo de la Concepción, en un recodo de la ribera, sobre una colina, a cuyos pies se extiende el pueblo de su nombre, casi olvidado de su importancia durante la colonia.

Como defensor de El Castillo se encontraba don José Herrera, hidalgo valiente, padre de Rafaela, joven de diecinueve años, educada no sólo en ejercicios varoniles, sino en las leyes de honor, de la fe y de un ardiente amor patriótico y filial.

Nicaragua era el principal objetivo de los ataques ingleses porque presentaba facilidades para la comunicación interoceánica, por lo que el Gobernador Inglés de Jamaica William Henry Littleton, recibe instrucciones de preparar una invasión a la provincia de Nicaragua por el Río San Juan, con un ejercito de tres mil hombres y más de cincuenta embarcaciones. Amenazaba El Castillo de la Concepción, precisamente cuando el castellano de la fortaleza estaba grave de cruel enfermedad.

La muerte ya empezaba a amenazar la existencia del Comandante Herrera, cuando la noticia de la invasión llegó. Todo fue entonces confusión, espanto. Mientras, el lecho mortuorio estaba silencioso. El castellano don Pedro Herrera agonizaba. Una vez vacilante iluminaba el cuarto. Rafaela, altiva y decidida, jura solemnemente a su padre defender la fortaleza, aún a costa de su vida.

El 17 de julio muere repentinamente el Comandante José Herrera y Sotomayor, asumiendo la comandancia el alférez Don Juan Aguilar y Santa Cruz.

Cuando el Comandante Inglés, avisado por los espías, sabe la muerte del Capitán Herrera manda a pedir con insolente descaro las llaves de la fortaleza, prometiendo no hacerle daño a nadie. El diálogo sostenido entre Rafaela y el oficial inglés, demuestra el valor y la nobleza de la heroína. Se presenta magnifica en aquel gesto negativo de fiera heroicidad que ha inmortalizado su nombre.

El 29 de Julio de 1762 estaban los ingleses frente al Castillo.

Con insolente audacia, y seguros como estaban de que la fortaleza capitularía ante sus amenazas, dieron principios a una serie de escaramuzas que acobardaron a la guarnición, desmoralizada por la muerte de su jefe. Viendo que los negros mulatos trataban de rendirse, Rafaela sintió bullir con fuerza impetuosa la sangre que corría por sus venas y los interceptó:

¿Os habéis olvidado de los deberes que les impone el honor militar?

¿Vais a permitir que se entregue villanamente esta fortaleza, que es el resguardo de la provincia de Nicaragua y vuestras familias?

Entonces Rafaela, con arranque sublime sube sola al torreón, carga el cañón y rompe fuego contra el campamento enemigo. Lo hizo con tan buena suerte que, al tercer disparo, acertó a meter una bala en la tienda del comandante inglés, dejándolo sin vida.

Enfurecidos por la muerte de su jefe, los ingleses emprendieron con saña el ataque del castillo, pero ya la guarnición, entusiasmada por el heroísmo de la niña, le opuso enérgica y valerosa resistencia, causándoles grandes pérdidas en hombres y embarcaciones.

La joven escudriña la noche y sólo divisa a lo lejos la llanura ceñida por los árboles. ¿Cómo sorprender al invasor? El Castillo está aislado, como prisionero, es necesario que, sin abandonar ninguno su puesta, se sorprenda al enemigo ¿Cómo lograrlo? Con un rasgo de ingenio, rápidamente hace empapar sábanas de alcohol que, colocadas en ramas secas, se deslizan inflamadas a lo largo del río en dirección de enemigo, llenando de pánico, pues creen que se trata del tradicional fuego griego.

El sitio se mantuvo, con alternativas de calma y fuego intenso por algo más de cuatro días. Pero el 3 de agosto el enemigo había abandonado sus posiciones de río arriba, dejando varios muertos, heridos y embarcaciones.

La derrota de los británicos causó inmenso regocijo en Nicaragua, especialmente en Granada. Cuando la heroica niña llegó con su madre a esta ciudad, fue recibida en triunfo y colmada de alabanzas y bendiciones por haberla salvado.

Algunos años después, entregó su valerosa mano a un caballero granadino llamado Don Pablo de Mora, pero la providencia no le deparó la felicidad que su heroísmo y virtudes merecían. Viuda y madre de cinco hijos, de los cuales dos estaban paralíticos, vivió doña Rafaela sumida en gran pobreza, hasta que en 1781 el Rey le concedió una pensión vitalicia en reconocimiento a los servicios prestados pro su padre y abuelo y sobre todo a la acción heroica realizada por ella.

A continuación extractos de la carta que el Rey hizo llegar a Rafaela Herrera.

"El Rey: por cuanto he sido informado del distinguido valor y fidelidad con que vos, doña Rafaela Herrera y Udiarte, viuda que al presente sois defendisteis el Castillo de la Purísima Concepción de Nicaragua en el Río San Juan, consiguiendo a pesar de las superiores fuerzas del enemigo, hacerle levantar el sitio, y ponerse en vergonzosa fuga, pues superando la debilidad de vuestro sexo, subisteis al caballero de la fortaleza, y disparando la artillería por vuestra mano matastéis con el tercer tiro al comandante inglés en su misma tienda: realzando la acción a la corta edad de diecinueve años que contabais, no tener castellano el Castillo, ni comandante ni otra guarnición que la de mulatos y negros, que habían resuelto entregarse cobardemente, con la fortaleza a que os opusisteis con el mayor esfuerzo; en consideración, pues, a tan señalado servicio, he decidido que goceis de pensión vitalicia.

Por tanto mando al Presidente, gobernador y capitán general del referido reino disponga se verifique esta gracia, que nos concedo desde el 1o. de enero del corriente año. Dada en San Lorenzo a 11 de noviembre de mil setecientos ochenta y uno.

country side life in Nicaragua . digging a well . fotos of the digger(Fermin) & assistant.(wife Rosa ).

Depending on different things on the spot of the well . its depth can vary from approx 50 ft to over 70 ft .

 

 

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