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Vergina(Greek:Βεργίνα) is a small town in northernGreece, located in the regional unit ofImathia,Central Macedonia. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipalityVeroia, of which it is a municipal unit.The town became internationally famous in 1977, when the Greek archaeologistManolis Andronikosunearthed the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including the tomb ofPhilip II, father ofAlexander the Great. The finds established the site as the ancientAigai(Greek:Αἰγαί).
The modern town of Vergina is about 13km (8mi) southeast of the district centre ofVeroiaand about 80km (50mi) southwest ofThessaloniki, the capital ofGreek Macedonia. The town has a population of about two thousand people and stands on the foothills of Mount Pieria, at an elevation of 120m (394ft) above sea level.
During the 8th and 7th century BC the area was ruled byIllyriantribes, which established a strategic base at the location of Aegae. When in the early 7th century BC localThracianandPaeoniantribes revolted, the Illyrians pulled out.In approximately 650 BC, theArgeads, an ancient Greek royal house led byPerdiccas I, fled fromArgosand established their capital at Aegae, thereby also establishing theKingdom of Macedon.Aegae is said to mean "city of goats" (αἴξ is the Greek word for goat). The capital city of the Macedon kings was called so after Perdiccas I, who was advised by the Pythian priestess to build the capital city of his kingdom where goats led him.From Aegae they spread to the central part of Macedonia and displaced the local population of Pierians. The area of modern Vergina, which has inhabited by Pierians, thus remained uninhabited until the middle of the 6th century BC. After 550 BC, a Macedonian population settled in the area. In the 5th century BC, KingArchelaus Imoved the Macedonian capital north toPellaon the central Macedonian plain.Aegae remained an important ceremonial center but lost a festival in honor ofZeustoDion.Aegae continued to flourish into the 3rd century BC until it was destroyed in the 1st century BC.
Modern Vergina was founded in 1922 near the site of the two small agricultural villages of Koutles (Greek:Κούτλες) and Barbes (Greek: Mπάρμπες) previously owned by theTurkishbeyof Palatitsa and inhabited by 25 Greek families. After theTreaty of Lausanneand the eviction of theBeylandlords, the land was distributed in lots to the existing inhabitants, and to 121 other Greek families fromBulgariaandAsia Minorafter population exchange agreements between Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey. The name for the new town was suggested by the thenMetropolitanofVeria, who named it after a legendary queen of ancient Beroea (modernVeria).
Archaeologists were interested in the hills around Vergina as early as the 1850s, supposing that the site of Aigai was in the vicinity and knowing that the hills were burial mounds. Excavations began in 1861 under the French archaeologistLeon Heuzey, sponsored by the EmperorNapoleon III. Parts of a large building that was considered to be one of the palaces ofAntigonus III Doson(263–221), partly destroyed by fire, were discovered at Palatitsa, which preserved the memory of a palace in its modern name. However, the excavations had to be abandoned because of the risk ofmalaria. The excavator suggested that this was the site of the ancient city Valla, a view that prevailed until 1976.
In 1937, the University of Thessaloniki resumed the excavations. More ruins of the ancient palace were found, but the excavations were abandoned on the outbreak of war withItalyin 1940. After the war the excavations were resumed, and during the 1950s and 1960s the rest of the royal capital was uncovered. The Greek archaeologistManolis Andronikosbecame convinced that a hill called theGreatTumulus(Greek: Μεγάλη Τούμπα) concealed the tombs of the Macedonian kings. In 1977, Andronikos undertook a six-week dig at the Great Tumulus and found four buried chambers, which he identified as hitherto undisturbed tombs. Three more were found in 1980. Excavations continued through the 1980s and 1990s. Andronikos claimed that these were the burial sites of the kings of Macedon, including the tomb ofPhilip II, father ofAlexander the Great(Tomb II). Andronikos maintained that another tomb (Tomb III) was ofAlexander IV of Macedon, son of Alexander the Great andRoxana.
This view is challenged by some archaeologists. Studies byEugene N. Borza, utilizing the construction of ceilingsthe of Tomb II, the incorporation of a weight measurement system introduced by Alexander the Great on golden objects in the tomb, Asian themes on the tomb's friezes, and the discovery of a scepter similar to that found on coins minted under Alexander's reign, as well as studies which utilized anthropological data,suggest that this tomb belongs to Alexander's half-brotherPhilip III Arrhidaeusand his wife, Adea Eurydice. Instead, according to Borza, Tomb I, also known asthe Tomb of Persephonemay have contained the remains of Phillip II and his family. If this theory is true, then the golden weaponry and royal objects found in Tomb II may have belonged to Alexander the Great.
On the other hand, a 2010 research supports that Tomb II cannot belong to Philip III Arrhidaus and his wife.This research, based on detailed study of the skeletons, vindicates Andronikos and sustains the facial asymmetry caused by a possible trauma of the cranium of the male, an evidence that is consistent with the history of Philip II.
Museum and the artifacts
The museum, which was inaugurated in 1993, was built in a way to protect the tombs, exhibit the artifacts and show the tumulus as it was before the excavations. Inside the museum there are four tombs and one small temple, theheroonbuilt as the temple for the great tomb of Philip II of Macedon. The two most important graves were not sacked and contained the main treasures of the museum. Tomb II ofPhilip II, the father of Alexander was discovered in 1977 and was separated in two rooms. The main room included a marble sarcophagus, and in it was thelarnaxmade of 24 carat gold and weighing 11 kilograms. Inside the golden larnax the bones of the dead were found and a golden wreath of 313 oak leaves and 68 acorns, weighing 717grams. In the room were also found thegolden and ivorypanoply of the dead, the richly-carved burial bed on which he was laid and later burned and silver utensils for the funeral feast. In the antechamber, there was another sarcophagus with another smaller goldenlarnaxcontaining the bones of a woman wrapped in a golden-purple cloth with a golden diadem decorated with flowers and enamel. There was one more partially destroyed by the fire burial bed and on it a golden wreath representing leaves and flowers ofmyrtle. Above theDoric orderentrance of the tomb there is a wall painting measuring 5.60 metres which represents a hunting scene.
In 1978 another burial site (Tomb III) was also discovered near the tomb of Philip, which belongs toAlexander IV of Macedonson ofAlexander the Great. It was slightly smaller than the previous and was also not sacked. It was also arranged in two parts, but only the main room contained a cremated body this time. On a stone pedestal was found a silverhydriawhich contained the bones and on it a golden oak wreath. There were also utensils and weaponry. A narrow frieze with a chariot race decorated the walls of the tomb.
The other two tombs were found to have been sacked. Tomb I or theTomb of Persephonewas discovered in 1977 and although it contained no valuable things found, on its walls was found a marvellous wall painting showing the abduction ofPersephonebyPluto. The other tomb, discovered in 1980, is heavily damaged and may have contained valuable treasures while it had an impressive entrance with four Doric columns. It was built in the
4th century BC and the archaeologists believe that the tomb belonged toAntigonus II Gonata
A minor tomb found near the palace of Aigai by K. Romaio
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