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IK2HTY Italy flag Italy

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PSE, see also IK2HTY/3

ARI          ARI

You see, wire telegraph is a kind of a very, very long cat.
You pull his tail in New York and his head is meowing in Los Angeles.
And radio operates exactly the same way: you send signals here, they receive them there.
The only difference is that there is no cat.
[Albert Einstein]

The passion for radio was born in me in the very early '70s, when i began my teenage: in those days, my parents gave me an electronic circuits assembling kit for Christmas. Within the several circuits to realize, there was a simple MW receiver. Since first time I built that circuit (and found it worked!), I've been fascinated by the "miracle" of carrying voice and sound to long distances by mean of something that I wasn't able to explain (but not much later I'd find out...).
Because of this experience, I decided to attend a technical high school, where I met the "misteries" of the electromagnetic waves, and finally I got a diploma in telecommunications. In those times I got my first equipment, a CB transceiver, so I started talking on radio, on the 11m band, and discovered many people having the same passion (but many other people that, today, would switch from CB to FB).
After the school, in 1977, I got my first ham authorization, the so called "Special" (afterward "Class B") license, that allowed to operate on VHF and above bands at no more than 10 W. Immediately, I got a small VHF FM equipment, just to operate on the VHF repeaters, but after few time I could get an Yaesu FT-290R, which I still use on VHF.
However my dream was to operate on the HF, but in Italy, in the early '80s, the HF needed the knowledge of CW.
So I started to learn telegraphy, and after few time I passed the telegraphy exam, and in 1986 I upgraded to the so called "Ordinary" (afterward "Class A") license.
Yes, I was able to operate on HF, so a friend sold me an old Heathkit HW-101, that I used for a while.
A quite long QRT period followed those events: work commitments and family responsibilities kept me away from radio. But my children are now grown up, and, after some jobs in the IT field, now I'm working in the telecommunications field, in a small italian company producing DMR VHF/UHF repeaters and synchronous (simulcast) radio networks. I could then re-familiarize with the constant-envelope modulation, the I/Q signal paths, and other "trifles" of this kind.
But, mostly, I could resume the radio amateur activity! Some years ago I bought an used Icom IC-725, and I started again to operate on the HF (SSB, digi modes and sometimes CW, that I'm re-learning).
My interests are now directed to radio tecnique, antennas, propagation, DX, and (why not?) awards hunting. I'm still not able to deal with a contest, maybe tomorrow ;), but if I reply to a "CQ Contest" I will surely send my report to allow the matching of the QSO, even for a single QSO.
Thank you for your patience and all the best to you and your family.


Home Site

My QTH is Milan

Awards References

DXCC Country ITALY (DXCC entity 248)
EURA EURA-004 (Lombardy Region, IT-25)
WAIR LOMBARDIA (Lombardy Region, IT-25)
WAIP MI (Metropolitan City of Milan, IT-MI)
WAIS Square BJ16 (Download WAIS Management Software)
ASC ASC-L24 (ARI Section of San Donato Milanese)
EUCC EUCC-IT-MI (Metropolitan City of Milan)
ISO 3166 Code IT-MI (Metropolitan City of Milan)


#79-0216 #24375 #07796 #4800 #7291 #2453


QSL Philosophy

The final courtesy of a QSO is a QSL card

I like exchanging QSL cards after a QSO very much. I think it's a very nice way to complete a contact (sometimes short) I had with you.
So, I surely will send you my card after a contact, following the directions found on your page on qrz.com or told to me during the contact.

The QSO takes a short time, the QSL card is Forever!

After a session on radio I normally upload my log to LoTW, eQSL (AG), HrdLog.net, ClubLog and qrz.com, because I recognize that the electronic confirmations (may them be called "virtual" QSLs?) are available in a time infinitely shorter than than paper QSLs exchanged via bureau, are much safer than paper QSLs exchanged via direct, and can be immediately used for awards.

Anyway I like paper QSLs (that I keep with care!), so, please, in addition to the electronic conformation, even if it takes long time, I would like to have your paper QSL via BUREAU.

DIRECT mode is a quite "hot" topic: in the time, I often (not always, fortunately) sent cards directly, including postage like IRC or green stamps as requested, without having any reply and without having any answer to my reminder mails; in addition, I'm afraid that in some countries the envelopes containing QSL could be stolen by postal workers. So I consider the DIRECT exchange as a very last resort, just if you are not reachable in other ways (and perhaps one day I will compile a blacklist...).
Anyway, if you want to send me your card directly (in the hope of receiving it...), I willingly accept it and will surely reply; don't include postage: I'm not a gs collectionist! A SAE is enough to be replied via DIRECT.

QSL/eQSLs Post Scriptum

After a (too) long meditation, I decided I will not reply to those personal QSLs and/or eQSLs sent by OMs that operated a special station/callsign, because my opinion is that the QSO belongs to the SES, not to the OM who operated it. Similarly, I will not accept QSLs and/or eQSLs sent to my personal callsign when I operated a special station/callsign.
Moreover, I will not accept all those "malformed" eQSLs (ie, reporting a callsign while the QSO was made with another one - this is frequent in /P operation: QSO with Y0/XX0XXX/P and eQSL from XX0XXX) or eQSLs reporting incorrect data (wrong mode, wrong time, or... sometimes I receive eQSLs reporting only "QSL UNDER CONSTRUCTION" on a yellow background: I think this is not serious and is outside of the ham spirit).

Tips and suggestions to design and realize your own eQSL (and sometimes paper QSL also...)

Since eQSLs can be used for some Awards by CQ Amateur Radio, by DARC and by other European Associations, it's now a good practice to compose an eQSL as it were a paper QSL card. So, it should report, at least:
Destination: this must be accurate, together with the indication of the Manager, if any - for example, if I had a QSO with you as IK2HTY/3, you should send the QSL/eQSL (and also all the other confirmations indeed) to IK2HTY/3, not to IK2HTY, since I require it (as they are separate logs) - more generally, you should "follow the instructions",
Callsign: I know it's incredible, but sometimes I received eQSLs without the callsign - completely useless!
Name: same as above, but less incredible...
WWL: ie World Wide Locator, aka QTH Locator - essential to define the location,
Address and ZIP code: as above, they can be useful to define the location, and the ZIP code is useful for some Awards,
WAC/WAZ: ie ITU zone and CQ zone codes,
About Station Location: of course WWL, Address and ZIP, and WAC/WAZ must be those of the location you are operating from - ie, don't indicate your home data if you are operating /P in another place...

QSO data: accurate UTC date and time (sometimes I received eQSLs reporting the local time or a time too different to that I logged: not good, can't match my log!), band or frequency, mode, report (JT65/JT9/ROS/SIM31: please don't put "599", it is not real!) and any comment you want,
Award References: it would be good that you put all the Award references you know (e.g.: IOTA, WAB_SQ, DOK, RDA, URDA...) and any code related to special location such as SOTA, WWFF...
ISO 3166 code: of course this is not essential, but the the ISO 3166 code of your location (often used - all or part - as a code for car plates or for operations towards general or local government) is useful for some european Awards,
AG: ie Authenticity Guaranteed, this is for eQSLs only, and certifies that you are what you say you are - it's easy to do and completely free (you should just take a picture of your license or scan it and send the image to eQSL), and required for Awards,
PSE/TNX: those are for paper QSLs, it's pleasant to know if you already received my QSL,
Last but not the least: all the data must be accurate and updated (sometimes I received QSLs or eQSLs with data not corresponding to those on qrz.com: which are the right data?), and will be appreciated any note or comment you think useful or pleasant, your greetings, and, as a final touch, your signature.


Many thanks from the bottom of my heart to my loved wife Rita, who supports my passion with an infinite patience.

Many thanks to the friends of ARI Section of Busto Arsizio IQ2VA
for the wonderful BBLogger logging software.



Current Activity

"It is not the class of license the Amateur holds but the class of the Amateur that holds the license" (DL1KSR)


Major Awards (click an image to enlarge)



My Friend, the Sun


A and K Indices

The Earth's magnetic field is continuously monitored by a network of magnetometers. These readings are converted into the values of the A and indices.

The K index is calculated every three hours (eight times a day). The values are quadi-logarithmic and range from 0 to 9, where 0 means inactive Sun, and 9 is a condition of extremely intense solar storm:

  • 0: Inactive Sun
  • 1: Very quiet
  • 2: Quiet
  • 3: Unstable
  • 4: Active Sun
  • 5: Minor solar storm
  • 6: Major solar storm
  • 7: Intense solar storm
  • 8: Very intense solar storm
  • 9: Extremely intense solar storm

The A index is rather linear, and is calculated on the basis of the previous measured eight K indices. The values range from 0 (quiet Sun) to 400 (intense solar storm):

  • 0 to 7: Quiet
  • 8 to 15: Unstable
  • 16 to 29 Active Sun
  • 30 to 49: Minor solar storm
  • 50 to 99: Major solar storm
  • 100 to 400: Intense solar storm

Generally the best propagation conditions are when the A index is up to 15 and the K index is up to 3.

Besides causing auroral activity, conditions of high geomagnetic field may interfere with the electrons in the ionosphere, reducing the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF).

SFI Index

SFI is the Solar Flux Index and is a measure of total radio emissions from the sun. We can relate the value to the HF propagation in this way:

  • < 70: very poor propagation
  • 70 to 79: fair propagation
  • 80 to 89: quite good propagation
  • 90 to 99: good propagation
  • >= 100: very good propagation

Note that the Solar Flux rarely affects the 30m, 40m, 60m, 80m and 160m Bands, while a high value generally suggests a better propagation on the 10m, 12m, 15m, 17m and 20m Bands. You can keep in mind this simple rule of thumb:

  • when SFI > 70 then 20m opens (during the day),
  • when SFI > 90 then 15m opens (during the day) and the 20m could opens in the night,
  • when SFI > 100 then highest bands open and 15m and 20m are generally workable during the night also.


Solar X-Ray emissions will cause fadeout on the HF. The classification of X-Ray emissions - from weak to strong - is: A, B, C, M, X.
During a solar X-ray outburst, the lower frequencies are the first to suffer, with subsequent fading up the frequency spectrum over a short period (usually less than a hour). Signals crossing daylight paths will be the most affected (obviously as X-Rays come from the sun).

(courtesy of W0OOG and IK2CHZ)


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8650565 Last modified: 2018-02-14 15:33:30, 52769 bytes

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QRZ Logbook Summary for - IK2HTY
Latest Contacts for IK2HTY at QRZ.com
dedateband mode grid Country op
N5OK 2018-02-15 40m FT8 EM15AK United States COY C DAY
WA9THI 2018-02-15 40m FT8 EM69HN United States Jerry W Hankins, Jr
K9ASE 2018-02-15 40m FT8 EN61GN United States THOMAS A BLACK
TI2RCJ 2018-02-15 40m FT8 EJ79XX Costa Rica Jorge Rojas Castillo
N3BKV 2018-02-15 40m FT8 DM04UD United States DAVID GINSBERG
KC1HTT 2018-02-15 40m FT8 FN41BJ United States William E Keicher
K1RX 2018-02-15 40m CW FN42MV United States MARK S PRIDE
KB0EO 2018-02-15 40m CW EN34IK United States DANIEL E SODERLUND
LY100Q 2018-02-15 40m CW KO15KG Lithuania Independence Of Lithuania
CN2FR 2018-02-15 40m CW IM63NX Morocco DL7DF and his team (DK1BT, DL4WK & DL7UFR), 13 - 20 February 201
JA9KRO 2018-02-15 20m FT8 PM86QU Japan KAORU SADO
RN4ABD 2018-02-15 20m FT8 LN28GS Russia Alexander V. Kulinich
OH7RH 2018-02-15 20m FT8 KP32VR Finland Risto Hiltunen
RA6ATV 2018-02-15 20m FT8 KN96EA Russia yuriy Ivannikov
UN7BCF 2018-02-15 20m FT8 MO43QG Kazakhstan Alexey Alexeevich Khromykh

Book Totals: 7800 qso's   2257 confirmed Get a free logbook at QRZ.COM

United States Counties Award#4409
Granted: 2016-09-01 15:27:11   (IK2HTY)

  • 100 Counties Digital
  • 100 Counties Mixed
DX World Award#3582
Granted: 2016-04-12 17:48:31   (IK2HTY)

  • 40 Meters Mixed
  • Mixed Digital
World Continents Award#1844
Granted: 2015-01-30 18:06:30   (IK2HTY)

  • 15 Meters Digital
  • 20 Meters Digital
  • 40 Meters Digital
  • Mixed Digital
  • 15 Meters Mixed
  • 17 Meters Mixed
  • 20 Meters Mixed
  • 40 Meters Mixed
  • 15 Meters Phone
  • Mixed Phone
  • Mixed CW
Grid Squared Award#1129
Granted: 2015-01-22 18:10:25   (IK2HTY)

  • 5 Band Digital
  • 15 Meters Digital
    20 Meters Digital
    30 Meters Digital
    40 Meters Digital
    Mixed Digital
  • 15 Meters Mixed
  • 20 Meters Mixed
  • 30 Meters Mixed
  • 40 Meters Mixed
  • 40 Meters Phone
  • Mixed Phone
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